Vitamins are a vital part of a great skincare regimen and are ingredients that Aurae Skin believes in and utilise in our products for the overall balance of a healthy, effective skincare routine.
Such vitamins are usually found in the treatment, serum, mask and moisturiser steps to our skincare routine. It is extremely useful to include various vitamins at any and all of the steps highlighted.
So what are vitamins and what do they do?
Vitamin A is also known as the cosmeceutical class of Retinoids. Sources of Vitamin A include:
- Retinoic Acid
Vitamin A is known to reverse changes in the skin brought on by sun exposure. Vitamin A acts as an antioxidant to protect skin cells from free radicals while also having the ability to activate specific genes and proteins for improved cell function. Vitamin A, with its extremely potent antioxidant powers combined with the activation of genes and proteins, has also been attributed to for the reduction of the appearance of stretch marks (specifically, tretinoin).
As a result of the changes Vitamin A is able to promote in the skin, we end up seeing a reduction in fine lines and wrinkles, improved skin elasticity and firmness, reduced pigmentation (discolouration) and improved skin texture.
Vitamin B has been known to minimise acne through balancing sebum production, regulating the skin's pigment production and brightening skin tone.
Examples of Vitamin B include:
- Niacinamide (B3)
- Vitamin B5
Increases skin tolerance to Vitamin A. The concentration of Niacinamide (in particular) needs to be at least 10% of a formulation for it to be effective on the skin. Niacinamide should not be applied with topical Vitamin C as it has been known to negate the effects of Vitamin C on the skin.
Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant and is renown for its ability to brighten skin by treating signs of photo-ageing including hyperpigmentation (sun spots), inflammation and assist in wound healing (beneficial for acne conditions).
Vitamin C is the most plentiful antioxidant and protects the skin from oxidative stress caused by UV exposure, environmental pollutants and promotes general protection from free radicals.
Vitamin C is essential for natural collagen production - adding Vitamin C to your skincare routine can also encourage collagen stimulation.
Forms of Vitamin C include:
- L-Asorbic Acid
- Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate
- Ascorbyl Palmitate
- Retinyl Ascorbate
- Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate
- Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate
- Ascorbyl Glucoside
- 3-O Ethyl Ascorbic Acid
Best used with other antioxidants and Vitamin E (known to boost Vitamin C efficacy x 4) to supercharge its efficacy. Vitamin C and Vitamin E products work in synergy to really give you that Vitamin C boost. Even more-so, bioactive botanical ingredient ferulic acid is known to boost Vitamin C efficacy x 8!
Products with Vitamin C are known to be unstable and will break down if routinely exposed to air and light. Meaning, Vitamin C products are best stored in opaque bottles/tubes with air tight caps or pump dispensers - and kept in a cool, dark place.
Vitamin E is unable to be naturally be produced by the body, therefore, it is up to us to consume sources of Vitamin E or topically apply to our skin to reap its benefits.
Vitamin E is known to protect from UV radiation exposure (though, it should not be treated as a sunscreen!) and reduce the signs of photo-ageing (ageing experienced through UV radiation exposure), reducing signs of melasma, age spots and hyperpigmentation. Vitamin E also assists with skin texture and moisture by assisting the skin's natural protection barrier - aiding in soothing dermatitis.
Studies have shown significant increases in the hydration levels of the skin and its ability to bind water when Vitamin E has been applied over a 2-4 week period.
- d-alpha-tocopherol Acetate
- dl-alpha tocopherol
- dl-alpha tocopherol Acetate
Research has shown that natural derivatives of Vitamin E are more effective than their synthetic counterpart. Furthermore, much like Vitamin C, Vitamin E should be combined with other antioxidants to boost its efficacy - notably CoEnzyme Q10 and Vitamin C.
There are limited studies on Vitamin K by comparison to the other Vitamin studies, however, Vitamin K has been attributed to wound healing, reduction in dark circles under the eye, the prevention of stretch marks and reduction in hyper-pigmentation on the skin (sun spots, melasma).
Vitamin K is also seen in skincare as being referred to:
- Phytonadione (Vitamin K1)